Document Type : Research article


1 GHD Advisory, Melbourne VIC 3000, Australia.

2 Department of Electrical Engineering, Technical and Vocational University (TVU), Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Maintenance, Iran Khodro Co, Tehran, Iran.

4 Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.


Microgrids (MGs), which can incorporate renewable energies such as wind and solar, can be divided into several sub-MGs with multiple connection points (MCPs) to the grids. However, this configuration is not ideal for MG operation due to the lack of adequate protection and operation mechanisms that ensure the safe and reliable functioning of distributed generation. A key issue with these MGs is the identification of islanding, which is challenging due to the presence of a broad non-detection zone (NDZ). Passive islanding identification approaches primarily depend on over/under voltage protection (OVP/UVP), over/under frequency protection (OFP/UFP), and monitoring metrics, such as phase jump at the point of common coupling (PCC). This study examines the power equations for real and reactive power in renewable-energy-based MGs (referred to as renewable MGs) with multiple connections to different grids and MGs, which are of significant size. The analysis focuses on the NDZ of OVP/UVP and OFP/UFP approaches. Passive approaches observe the changing system parameters that occur when the MG is isolated, while active methods depend on the system's reaction to a minor disturbance introduced to identify the isolation situation. Traditional passive islanding detection approaches exhibit a significant NDZ that may compromise the accuracy of islanding detection in these types of MGs. Even if one grid is disconnected, the MG remains connected to other grids, preventing islanding. Consequently, typical active islanding detection methods are unable to identify the off-grid status.

Graphical Abstract

Power Equations for Non-Detection Zone of Islanding Detection in Renewable-Energy-based Microgrids with Multiple Connection Points to Microgrids


  • Presenting the power equations for active and reactive power in renewable-energy-based multi-microgrids
  • Presenting procedures for over/under voltage protection, over/under frequency protection
  • The proposed approach is very broad across different types of microgrids
  • The proposed local islanding identification methods often have a significant NDZ