Document Type : Research article


1 Islamic Azad University of Semmirom Branch, Semmirom, Iran

2 Department of Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran


The utilization of renewables is developing rapidly due to environmental issues and a lack of fuel fossils. In this regard, wind turbines, as a type of renewable energy source, have been widely adopted in the power system thanks to their higher power generation capacity. Numerous methods have been introduced so far to control wind turbines, which are essential in generating wind energy. The sliding mode control, because of its unique features like being resistant to external disturbances, dynamics unmodeled and uncertainty, the relative simplicity of the control law, a relatively small amount of calculations, and straightforward implementation, is amongst the most preferred control designs in this realm. In this study, the control strategy is based on a combination of sliding mode and particle swarm optimization and is applied to a wind turbine with a grid-connected squirrel cage induction generator. The proposed method maximizes the power output of the wind turbine by limiting small changes in the electromagnetic torque.­ The main goal of the suggested design is to reduce the squared error of the electromagnetic torque, rotor speed, and stator current.­ The sliding mode control for the wind turbine helps obtain optimal values for the parameters of the design. 

Graphical Abstract

Applying Sliding Mode Control Along with Particle Swarm Algorithm in Order to Optimally Control the System Wind Turbines with Variable Speed



  • MPP tracking while observing the allowed range of duty cycle
  • Preserving the permissible range of ripples of various parameters
  • Extending the operating range of the variable-resistance method
  • Adopting the proposed method for PV energy management